Performing Arithmetic on Bitsets in C++

The bitset class template comes with basic operations for manipulating sets of bits but doesn’t provide any arithmetic or comparison operations. This is because the library can’t safely assume what kind of numerical type a programmer might expect an arbitrary set of bits to represent.The functions below treat a bitset as a representation of an unsigned integer type, and provide you with functions for adding, subtracting, multiplying, dividing, and comparing them. These functions can provide a basis for writing custom-sized integer types. I did not use the most efficient algorithms I could for below function. Instead I chose the simplest possible algorithms because they are more easily understood. A much more efficient implementation would use similar algorithms, but would operate on words rather than single bits.

The functions below provide functions that allow arithmetic and comparison of bitset class template from the header as if it represents an unsigned integer.

```
#include <stdexcept>
#include <bitset>
bool fullAdder(bool b1, bool b2, bool& carry)

{
bool sum = (b1 ^ b2) ^ carry;
carry = (b1 && b2) || (b1 && carry) || (b2 && carry);
return sum;
}
bool fullSubtractor(bool b1, bool b2, bool& borrow)

{
bool diff;
if (borrow)

{
diff = !(b1 ^ b2);
borrow = !b1 || (b1 && b2);
}
else

{
diff = b1 ^ b2;
borrow = !b1 && b2;
}
return diff;
}
template<unsigned int N>
bool bitsetLtEq(const std::bitset& x, const std::bitset& y)
{
for (int i=N-1; i >= 0; i--)

{
if (x[i] && !y[i]) return false;
if (!x[i] && y[i]) return true;
}
return true;
}

template<unsigned int N>
bool bitsetLt(const std::bitset& x, const std::bitset& y)
{
for (int i=N-1; i >= 0; i--) {
if (x[i] && !y[i]) return false;
if (!x[i] && y[i]) return true;
}
return false;
}
template<unsigned int N>
bool bitsetGtEq(const std::bitset& x, const std::bitset& y)
{
for (int i=N-1; i >= 0; i--) {
if (x[i] && !y[i]) return true;
if (!x[i] && y[i]) return false;
}
return true;
}
template<unsigned int N>
bool bitsetGt(const std::bitset& x, const std::bitset& y)
{
for (int i=N-1; i >= 0; i--)

{
if (x[i] && !y[i]) return true;
if (!x[i] && y[i]) return false;
}
return false;
}
template<unsigned int N>
void bitsetAdd(std::bitset& x, const std::bitset& y)
{
bool carry = false;
for (int i = 0; i < N; i++)

{
}
}
template<unsigned int N>
void bitsetSubtract(std::bitset& x, const std::bitset& y)

{
bool borrow = false;
for (int i = 0; i < N; i++)

{
if (borrow)

{
if (x[i])

{
x[i] = y[i];
borrow = y[i];
}
else

{
x[i] = !y[i];
borrow = true;
}

}
else

{
if (x[i])

{
x[i] = !y[i];
borrow = false;
}
else

{
x[i] = y[i];
borrow = y[i];
}
}
}
}
template<unsigned int N>
void bitsetMultiply(std::bitset& x, const std::bitset& y)
{
std::bitset tmp = x;
x.reset( );
// we want to minimize the number of times we shift and add
if (tmp.count( ) < y.count( ))

{
for (int i=0; i < N; i++)
if (tmp[i]) bitsetAdd(x, y << i);
}
else

{
for (int i=0; i < N; i++)
if (y[i]) bitsetAdd(x, tmp << i);
}
}
template<unsigned int N>
void bitsetDivide(std::bitset x, std::bitset y,
std::bitset<N>& q, std::bitset<N>& r)
{
if (y.none( ))

{
throw std::domain_error("division by zero undefined");
}
q.reset( );
r.reset( );
if (x.none( ))

{
return;
}
if (x == y)

{
q[0] = 1;
return;
}
r = x;
if (bitsetLt(x, y))

{
return;
}

// count significant digits in divisor and dividend
unsigned int sig_x;
for (int i=N-1; i>=0; i--)

{
sig_x = i;
if (x[i]) break;
}
unsigned int sig_y;
for (int i=N-1; i>=0; i--)

{
sig_y = i;
if (y[i]) break;
}
// align the divisor with the dividend
unsigned int n = (sig_x - sig_y);
y <<= n;
// make sure the loop executes the right number of times
n += 1;
// long division algorithm, shift, and subtract
while (n--)
{
// shift the quotient to the left
if (bitsetLtEq(y, r))
{
// add a new digit to quotient
q[n] = true;
bitsetSubtract(r, y);
}
// shift the divisor to the right
y >>= 1;
}
}

```

Using the bitset_arithmetic.hpp functions:

```#include "bitset_arithmetic.hpp"
#include <bitset>
#include <iostream>
#include <string>
using namespace std;
int main( )

{
bitset<10> bits1(string("100010001"));
bitset<10> bits2(string("000000011"));
cout << bits1.to_string<char, char_traits<char="">, allocator >( ) << endl;
}

```

The program produces the following output:
0100010100

Programming... Programming and Programming...!!!

Posted on May 15, 2013, in A library re-written., Algorithms, C++ and tagged , , , , , , , , , , . Bookmark the permalink. 8 Comments.

1. Argih

When i’m trying to use your library it returns me an error saying you can’t use std::bitset without an argument list

• std::bitset is a class template. you can use it as followes,

#include // std::bitset

std::bitset foo;
std::bitset bar (0xfa2);
std::bitset baz (std::string(“0101111001”));

Output:
foo: 0000000000000000
bar: 0000111110100010
baz: 0000000101111001

• Olivier Provost

I have the same problem and #include // std::bitset doesnt solve it.